Here in this article you will know every thing you need to know about Concrete like: ( Concrete Definition, Concrete Ingredients ).
We are actually living in the concrete age. It has become so important because it is used in almost every type of construction like: ( buildings, roads and highways, tunnels, storage dams and power generating plants , airports and atomic power reactors ).
Thus, In buildings it is used almost from foundation to topmost storeys. In transportation, it is used in Streets, Highways, Airports etc. Concrete is also a material used extensively for water storage and transport such as in lining of canals and water reservoirs .
In addition to the above primary uses, It is also used as a coating material for specific purposes such as for water proofing, fire proofing, sound proofing and shielding against radiations in X-rays plants and atomic power plants.
Concrete may be defined as, “a plastic mixture of binding material like: ( Cement or Lime ) with sand and crushed stones or gravels in the presence of water”.
Certain other materials called admixtures are also added sometime to obtain specific effects.
Essential concrete ingredients are:
- Gravels ( Crushed stones )
- Admixture ( If required ).
All the ingredients are mixed in pre-determined proportions and accordance with a set of procedure.
The essential property of concrete is that it sets and hardens into a strong, rock-like mass within a short period of time. The ultimate strength and other properties of concrete depend on a number of factors, like:
- The nature of aggregate materials used.
- The quality and proportions of cement, aggregates.
- Water used for making the mixture.
- And on the Workmanship.
The Composition is generally expressed in terms of relative volumes of :
- Fine aggregate (sand).
- And coarse aggregate (gravel etc).
Thus a 1:2:4 concrete indicates a mix having 1 part by volume of cement, 2 parts of sand and 4 parts of gravel or crushed aggregates. ( In actual mixing the relative volumes are converted to weights of respective materials.).
Watch the video below for better understanding.
As said above, the essential ingredients are:
- Binding material (Cement or Lime).
- Fine aggregate ( Sand or such other materials ).
- Coarse aggregate (Gravel, Crushed stone or such other materials ).
- And Water.
- Admixtures are classed as optional ingredients.
The function of a Binding material (Cement or Lime) is to bind the coarse and fine aggregate particles together. Although ” Portland Cement ” is the most common binding material used as a binder in a mixture.
Much research has been done to prove that lime ( especially Hydraulic Lime ) can also be used successfully for as a Binding material in common type of construction. Lime is economical as compared to cement, and also strong enough for ordinary type of construction.
The function of Fine aggregates serve the purpose of filling all the open spaces in between the coarse particles. This way the porosity of the final mass is decreased.
The maximum particle size in fine aggregates is always less than 6.35 mm. However, sand is commonly and universally used as a fine aggregate, and its grain size is around 2 mm.
And the function of Coarse aggregates is to act as the main load bearing component of concrete. When a good number of coarse aggregate fragments ( all more than 6.35 mm in diameter ) are held together by a cementing material, their behavior towards the imposed loads is just like a very strong rock mass. Gravel and crushed stone is commonly used for this purpose.
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