In this article, You’ll know in details that what is Concrete Pipe, Vitrified Clay Pipe, Cast Iron Pipe, and Asbestos Pipe.
So, Let’s move on.
Cast Iron Pipe.
Cast Iron pipe is widely used for city water-distribution systems because of its high resistance to corrosion and consequent long life.
Under normal conditions, a cast iron pipe can be expected to last 100 years.
The usual length of a pipe section is 12 ft, but lengths up to 20 ft can be obtained.
Cast iron pipe is made in several thickness classes for various pressures up to a maximum of 350 psi.
A common joint for cast iron pipe is the bell and spigot. A few strands of jute are wrapped around the spigot before it is inserted into the bell, and then more jute is packed into the joint.
Finally, the space between the bell and spigot is tilled with a molten lead, which is tightly caulked into the joint after cooling.
Patented compounds of sulfur and other materials and neat cement mortar are also used for joints. These materials are cheaper than lead, but the joints are usually less flexible.
The flanged pipe is used for pumping stations, filter plants, and other locations where it may be necessary to disjoint the pipe.
Flanged couplings must be fitted perfectly and provided with a gasket if they are to be watertight.
Watch the installation video below.
Because of the skilled labor required for lead joints, numerous mechanical couplings are finding extensive use and have largely replaced bell-and-spigot joints.
These couplings are bolted together and designed to avoid the careful fit required of ordinary hanged couplings and to permit flexibility in pipe placement.
One of the most common is the Dresser coupling.
Precast Concrete pipe is available in sizes up to 72 inches diameter, and sizes up to 180 inches have been made on special order.
Precast Concrete pipes are reinforced except in sizes under 24 inches diameter. The reinforcement may take the form of spirally wound wire or elliptical boom.
In large pipes, the reinforcement usually consists of two cylindrical cages. The precast concrete pipe is usually made by rotating the form rapidly about the pipe axis.
The centrifugal force presses the mortar tightly against the forms and results in high-density watertight concrete.
For low heads, the concrete pipe is usually joined with a mortar caulked bell-and-spigot joint, but for high pressures, the lock joint or some other special joint is required.
For heads above 100 ft, a welded steel cylinder is often cast in the pipe for water-tightness.
Because of the better control in its manufacture, a precast concrete pipe is usually of higher quality and not need to be so thick as cast-in-place pipe of the same size.
Because of the need to move plant and forms over long distances, cast-in-place pipe is relatively expensive and is normally used only for pipe sizes not available in precast form or where transportation difficulties make use of precast pipe impossible.
Watch the installation video below.
For gravity flow, the no-joint concrete pipe has been developed in California.
This pipe has been constructed in sizes 24 to 72 inches. A special pipe-laying machine with a slip form is used.
Rates of production vary from 40 to 120 ft/hr. Though this pipe is not reinforced, the experience record to date has been good.
A concrete pipe should last at least 35 to 50 years under average conditions. Alkaline water may cause rapid deterioration of thin concrete sections.
Concrete pipes carrying wastewater may be subject to sulfide corrosion and may be short-lived unless proper precautions are taken.
Vitrified Clay Pipe.
Vitrified Clay Pipe is not often used as pressure pipe but is widely used in sewerage and drainage for flow at partial depth.
The main advantage of vitrified clay pipe is that it is virtually corrosion-free, has a long life, and its smooth surface provides high hydraulic efficiency.
Use of vitrified clay pipe under pressure is usually prevented by its low strength in tension and the difficulty of securing watertight joints.
The most common joint for vitrified clay pipe is the bell-and-spigot flexible compression joint in which precision mated surfaces are in tight contact with one another.
Rubber-sleeve couplings held in place with corrosion-resistant steel bands are occasionally used with plain-end clay pipe,
…but more often the joints of this type of pipe are left open to permit passage of water either into or out of the pipe.
Watch the installation Video below.
Vitrified Clay pipe is most commonly made of 3-ft lengths, but 2, 2.5, and 4-ft lengths can be obtained.
Inside diameters vary by 2 inches increments from 4 to 12 inches and by 3 inches increments above 12 inches.
Clay pipe in diameters greater than 36 inches is rarely used.
Because of the dimension changes, while the pipe is in the kiln, liberal tolerances in all dimensions are necessary.
The asbestos pipe is made from asbestos, silica, and cement converted under pressure to a dense, homogeneous material possessing considerable strength.
The asbestos fiber is thoroughly mixed with the cement and serves as reinforcement.
This type of pipe is available in diameters of from 4 to 36 inches in 13-ft lengths. The pipe is made in various grades, the strongest being intended for internal pressures up to 200 psi.
The asbestos pipe is assembled by means of a special coupling which consists of a pipe sleeve and two rubber rings which are compressed between the pipe and the interior of the sleeve.
The joint is as resistant to corrosion as the pipe itself and is flexible enough to permit as much as 12° deflection in laying pipe around curves.
An asbestos-cement pipe is light in weight and can be assembled without skilled labor. It can be joined to cast-iron pipe with lead or sulfur-base compounds.
It is easily cut and can be tapped and threaded for service connections. The hydraulic efficiency of an asbestos pipe is high.
Watch the cutting video below.
However, the rubber-joint seals may deteriorate if exposed to gasoline or other petroleum products.
The pipe is easily damaged by excavating tools and does not have much strength in bending.
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